Making a Plan
Burlington Electric Department is unique in the fact that we employee a staff of four professional licensed foresters. Our foresters develop a harvest plan for each site in Vermont that produces wood for the McNeil Generating Station. Each plan includes data on what is growing on site presently and the landowner's objective for future growth. A harvest system is prescribed following U.S. Forest Service guidelines. Additionally, each site is monitored for the presence of critical wildlife habitat including deer yards, bat roost trees, rare, threatened, and endangered species, and wetlands. If present, the harvest plan is modified to protect and promote the success of these habitats. Harvest plans then are sent to Vermont wildlife biologists, who must approve them before any cutting of trees occurs.
Once harvest begins, our foresters monitor the progress of the cutting, ensuring that each harvest plan is followed. Sites are checked for adherence to Vermont Acceptable Management Guidelines, which detail stream and wetland buffers, erosion control measures, stream crossings, and site reclamation after harvests are completed.
McNeil Uses Residues
The McNeil Station uses forest residues, wood left over from traditional logging operations. Higher-value products are sorted and sold to other markets such as sawmills, paper companies, and firewood processors. The low-value residues, which do not have another market, then are chipped and used as fuel at McNeil.
The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007 report Mitigation of Climate Change stated, "In the long term, a sustainable forest management strategy aimed at maintaining or increasing forest carbon stocks, while producing an annual sustained yield of timber, fiber or energy from the forest, will generate the largest sustained mitigation benefit."
"The use of biomass from managed forests can provide numerous environmental benefits. Specifically, forest biomass for energy production can bolster domestic energy production, provide jobs to rural communities, and promote environmental stewardship by improving soil and water quality, reducing wildfire risk, helping to ensure our forests remove carbon from the atmosphere. ... Biogenic CO2 emissions resulting from the combustion of biomass from managed forests at stationary sources for energy production are carbon neutral."
-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Reduced Environmental Impact
In comments to the Empire State Forest Product Association Board in October 2020, Dr. Robert Malmsheimer, Professor of Forestry and Law at SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, stated that in order to meet NetZero requirements by 2050 "New York State would need to maintain existing carbon stocks and increase sequestration in forests via younger, established, rigorously growing forests."
These comments apply to Vermont as well. In the McNeil Economic Impact Study, Eric Kingsley stated, "If the 227,247 MW that the McNeil Station generated in 2019 did not come from the plant, they would need to be procured from other generators in ISO-New England. The regional grid has an average carbon dioxide emission rate of 782 pounds per MWh or 0.341 tons per MWh. This means that using carbon neutral biomass at McNeil kept 77,492 tons of carbon emissions from happening."
Increased Forest Growth
U.S. Forest Service inventory analysis data comparing acres of forest land, number of live trees and volume of live trees show increased growth across all three sectors during the five-year period from 2014 to 2019. In 2019, the annual growth of Vermont forests was three million green tons per year. Total yearly harvests for all forest products was approximately 50% of the annual growth, leaving the other 50% to continue adding to the state's total above ground stored biomass. In 2019, McNeil wood residue usage accounted for 8% of all Vermont harvests and 4% of the state's annual growth. These figures show that forests in Vermont are established, strong, healthy, and rigorously growing at a rate far exceeding the rate of all harvesting.
Working with Landowners
The McNeil Station is a proud partner in working with local landowners participating in sustainable forest management. Recent data indicates that 76% of our harvests occurred on lands covered by State-approved Use Value Management Plans, and 95% of our harvests were developed under U.S. Forest Service guidelines. By providing a market for low-grade forest residues, the McNeil Station allows landowners to follow their forest management plans. This produces income for landowners, offsetting the cost of owning forest land. This market helps keep forests as forests, providing wide-scale benefits to the public at large. These benefits include clean air, clean water, enhanced wildlife habitat, and recreational opportunities. Working forests provide the backdrop to Vermont's tourism industry.
Regional Economic Impact
The McNeil Station has both direct and indirect impacts on Vermont's economy. The station employs 33 individuals who live and work in the region. The wood supply chain employs an additional 50 individuals. When combined, these jobs add $4.5 million to the regional economy. Each job is accompanied by a multiplier (money spent by individuals in supporting jobs, incomes, and taxes). With this multiplier, the McNeil Station adds $66.5 million to the regional economy yearly. View our Integrated Resource Plan (Appendices) for details.